Julius Caesar was the seminal figure responsible for the long line of emperors that would follow him. The complex events that led to his departure from the customary Republican ways of governing the country are beyond the scope of this short bio. Suffice it to say that a series of civil wars that shook Rome left the Senate weakened and actual power was wielded by only a handful of men. The traditional system of checks and balances that had up until then kept any one person from acquiring too much power was gone and, as is always the case, power hungry individuals moved in to fill the vacuum.
Caesar was one of those men who initially had carved up power with two other wealthy and influential men, Crassus and Pompey. Through a series of political maneuvers he eventually gained the upper hand and was able to edge out the other “Triumvirs” to become a de facto emperor. The key to his power lay in his systematic acquisition of titles that he wrested through one means or another from the Senate. Most important of these was the office of Dictator which until then was only sparingly given on terms that expired annually. The Dictator was given broad powers to rule during times of trouble and would be roughly equivalent to a military leader calling for a state of Martial Law. The scandal that precipitated his downfall was his brazen choice to name himself Dictator in perpetuity. In effect, this removed any possibility of others sharing in power while he remained alive and, to remedy the situation, a group of Senators led by his close friend Brutus stabbed him to death in the famous Ides of March plot (March 15th, 44 BC).
Caesar’s assassination engendered a cascade of events immediately afterwards that, quite contrary to the hopes of his assassins, quickly evaporated the power of the Senate and its Republican ways for good. His life and death and the aftermath are memorialized in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, one of literature’s greatest plays.
CRI 56, Sydenham 1017, RRC 458/1 Aureus Obv: CAESARCOSTTER – Veiled head of Vesta.
Rev: AHIRTIVS – Lituus, jug and axe. $2,700 5/22/02.
RRC 475/1a Aureus Obv: CCAES DICTER – Victory draped bust right.
Rev: Cruet. 45 BC.
CRI 9, Sydenham 1006, RRC 443/1, S 1399 Denarius Obv: No legend – Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and apex.
Rev: CAESAR – Elephant advancing right. 49 BC (Rome).
CRI 11, Sydenham 1009, RRC 452/2 Denarius Obv: Laureate head of Pietas right; TII behind.
Rev: Trophy of Gallic arms; axe surmounted by an animal’s head on right. CAE-SAR in lower fields. $650 8/29/30.
CRI 20, Sydenham 420, RRC 449/1 Denarius Obv: PANSA – Masked of bearded Pan right.
Rev: CVIBIVSCFCN IOVISAXVR – Jupiter Anxurus seated left, holding patera and scepter. $41 2/26/02.
CRI 55, Sydenham 1013, RRC 458/1, S 1402 Denarius Obv: Diademed head of Venus right.
Rev: CAESAR – Aeneas advancing left, carrying Anchises and palladium. 47-46 BC (Carthage?).
CRI 100, Sydenham 1056, RRC 480/3 Denarius Obv: CAESARIMP – Laureate head of Caesar right, lituus and simpulum behind
Rev: MMETTIVS – Venus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, scepter in left, shield resting on globe; G to left.
CRI 102, Sydenham 1060, C 22 Denarius Obv: CAESARIMPM – Laureate head right; crescent behind
Rev: LAEMILIVSBVCA – Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter. $5,500 1/16/02.
CRI 104a, Sydenham 1062, RRC 480/7b Denarius Obv: CAESARDICTPERPETVO – Laureate head right.
Rev: LBVCA – Venus seated right, holding Victory in right hand, scepter in left. $1,450 1/16/02.
CRI 106a, Sydenham 1071, RRC 480/5b, C 41 Denarius Obv: CAESARIMP – Laureate head right, star behind head.
Rev: PSEPVLLIVS – Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter resting on star. $1,375 10/1/03.
CRI 107b, Sydenham 1072, RRC 480/11 Denarius Obv: DICTPERPETVOCAESAR – Laureate head right.
Rev: PSEPVLLIVS MACER – Venus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, scepter set on star in left. $800 4/1/01.
CRI 107d, Sydenham 1074, RRC 480/13 Denarius Obv: DICTPERPETVOCAESAR – Veiled and wreathed head of Julius Caesar, right.
Rev: PSEPVLLIVSMACER – Apollo standing left, holding Victory, scepter attached to shield.
CRI 111a, Sydenham 1068, RRC 480/15 Denarius Obv: Laureate and veiled head of Caesar right.
Rev: Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter resting on shield. $700 5/22/02.
CRI 115, Sydenham 1106, RRC 494/24 Denarius Obv: No legend – Laureate head of Julius Caesar; caduceus right field, branch left field.
Rev: LLIVINEIVS REGVLVS – Bull bucking right. $1,903 4/12/02.
CRI 116, Sydenham 1096, RRC 494/39 Denarius Obv: No legend – Laureate head of Caesar right.
Rev: MVSSIDIVSLONGVS – Rudder, cornucopia on globe, winged caduceus and flamen’s cap. $1,600 1/16/02.
CRI 329, Sydenham 1132, RRC 526/2 Denarius, Posthumous Obv: DIVIIVLI – Laureate head right; lituus behind.
Rev: QVOCONIVS/VITVLVS – Calf standing left. $2,400 1/16/02.
S 417, RRC 448/1 Denarius Obv: No legend – Diademed head of female deity (Clementia?) right.
Rev: LHOSTILIVSSASERNA – Victory advancing right, holding caduceus and trophy. $36 5/31/02.
S 418, RRC 448/2 Denarius Obv: No legend – Bare head to the right of captive Gallic warrior with shield behind.
Rev: LHOSTILIVS/SASERN – Gallic driver maneuvering biga right with Victory supervising behind. 48 BC (Rome).
RRC 480/6, Syd 1063, S 103, C 25 Denarius Obv: CAESARDICTPERPETVO – Wreathed head right.
Rev: LBVCA – Fasces crossed over caduceus; globe above, legend to right, axe below and hands in handshake to left. February – March 44 BC (Rome). $1,247 3/8/04.
S 1403, RRC 467/1 Denarius Obv: DICTITER COSTERT – Corn laureate head of Ceres, right.
Rev: AVGVR PONTMAX – Simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus. 46 BC (Utica).
S 1419, RRC 480/17 Denarius Obv: CAESARIMPER – Wreathed head of Julius Caesar, right.
Rev: MMETTIVS – Victory standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; left forearm rests on shield. March – April 44 BC (Rome). $362 12/12/02.
S 1423, RRC 485/1 Denarius Obv: No legend – Laureate head right of Julius Caesar.
Rev: LFLAMINIVSIIIIVIR – Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. 43 BC (Rome).
AR Denarius (Posthumous)
CRI 113, Sydenham 1089, C 26 Denarius Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Pax standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. 43 BC (Rome).
CRI 62, S 1025, RRC 476/1a Dupondius Obv: Draped bust of Victory right.
Rev: Minerva standing left, holding trophy over right shoulder and shield, decorated with Medusa, on left arm; snake at her feet left. 45 BC (N. Italy).
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